Explain quantum computing in simple terms

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With quantum computing, data operations are carried out in accordance with the laws of quantum mechanics. Bits are the basic unit of data storage in conventional computers, and they can only take on the values of 0 or 1 depending on the context. Contrarily, in quantum computing, data is stored in quantum bits, or qubits, which may act as both a 0 and a 1 simultaneously.

Because of this, quantum computers can do some computations at speeds much above those of classical computers. Shor's method, for example, is well-known for its ability to factor big numbers at a considerably quicker rate than any conventional approach. It's crucial to know this since many encryption methods depend on the fact that factoring huge numbers is very difficult for classical computers.

However, there are still many obstacles to be conquered before quantum computing can be used in most real-world contexts. However, it could potentially alter the course of history in many areas, including cryptography, drug discovery, and AI.